Uganda managed to reverse the high HIV prevalence rate from 18% in the early 1990s to 6.4% in 2005. By 2011, the country witnessed a resurgence of the epidemic with HIV prevalence rising to 7.3% among adults aged 15-49 years (Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey, 2011). HIV/AIDS continues to be a major socio-economic challenge for the country and is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. However, the emergency response to the epidemic in Uganda resulted in the development of separate donor-funded HIV/AIDS clinics, supply chains and governance structures.

According to the Uganda AIDS Commission Investment Case 2014, Uganda’s annual number of new HIV infections will rise from 140,000 in 2014 to 340,491 in 2025 without any interventions; resulting into a cumulative 2,890,569 new HIV infections by 2025.

The government of Uganda has demonstrated commitment to taking stewardship of the country’s HIV/AIDS services and fighting the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The recent National HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan (2015/2016—2019/2020) has adopted UNAIDS 90-90-90 strategy to end the HIV epidemic. The strategy aims that by 2020:

  • 90% of all people living with HIV will know their HIV status;
  • 90% of all people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive sustained antiretroviral therapy; and 
  • 90% of all people receiving antiretroviral therapy will have viral suppression.

Since 2003, with support from the United States Government President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), substantial progress has been made toward the goal of providing universal access to treatment in Uganda. The USAID/SUSTAIN project—which receives funding from PEPFAR and USAID—supports 11 public healthcare facilities to deliver quality HIV care and treatment services. In addition to maintaining coverage of care for people living with HIV or AIDS, the project focuses on strengthening the Ministry of Health’s stewardship over HIV/AIDS services and strengthening public systems for sustainable service delivery through strong partnerships with the Ugandan Ministry of Health and other key stakeholders.